American foulbrood testing: what options do you have?

American foulbrood (AFB) is a bacterial infection that affects honey bees and has disastrous effects on a colony’s health. The disease is caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, which produces spores that can survive for over 35 years in beehives and beekeeping equipment. The spores are able to survive in a wide range of disinfectant solutions and temperatures so the advised way to destroy the bacteria is to burn the affected equipment/honey.
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Understanding Tutin Compositing

Composite testing is a popular and affordable way of confirming that tutin concentration in honey samples meets MPI requirements. We have reviewed results for all tutin composite samples tested at Analytica in 2017, 2018, and 2019. Eighty-seven percent of these samples had low results, meaning that all the individual samples in those composites were below 0.7 mg/kg of tutin. About 13% had composite results that required a re-test of individual samples.
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Understanding C4 Sugar Analysis

C4 sugar analysis of honey is an internationally recognised way of testing whether the honey has been adulterated with other sugars.
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Using Manuka Honey Forecasts for Trading Honey

It has become common to trade mānuka honey based on a forecast of its future grade and quality. However, simply using the maximum future grade of the honey may not be the best way of valuing honey today. Its current value will be affected by things like the cost of carrying the honey while it ‘grows’, the risk of the honey being damaged while it ‘grows’, and its ability to be packed into a product that can be sold in high-value overseas markets.
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An Understanding of Analytica's Nectar Testing

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C4 Sugar Testing: AOAC vs Screen

This article offers some details on the C4 sugar test and two screening methods.
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Tips For Cost Effective Tutin Testing

Honey samples can be tested for tutin using either composite or individual testing. While the lower initial cost of testing a sample as part of a 10-sample composite is attractive, it can be a false economy if the composite sample fails and all the samples in it need to be re-tested individually. If there is a moderate or unknown risk of tutin being in samples, consider testing samples in composite groups of five rather than 10. If there is a high risk of a sample containing tutin above MPI’s maximum residue limit, consider testing that sample individually from the start.
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Understanding DNA Testing in Manuka Honey

This article gives a brief introduction to DNA testing for those who wonder how it works.
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C4 Sugars: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

At Analytica Laboratories, we have processed a large number of honey samples for C4 sugars over the past three years and have found a set of recurring questions that are asked when a test result comes back near to or over the threshold level of 7% C4 sugars. In this article, I will endeavour to answer these commonly asked questions and shed some light on current research and methodology to identify genuine sugar adulteration in mānuka honey.
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Managing the Risk of Fermenting Honey

Many beekeepers and processors have had to deal with fermenting honey in the past. It is caused by naturally occurring yeasts growing in the honey, and high moisture content is a key risk factor which makes fermentation more likely. This article describes why honey ferments, and provides some ideas about how to manage the risk of it happening.
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Apparent C4 Sugars in Manuka Honeys

The C4 sugar test is a general qualification procedure for marketed honey. Current standards limit the amount of C4 sugars in honey to 7%. Most floral types of honey produce stable C4 sugar test results over the period of their shelf life. High-quality mānuka honeys were shown to inflate their C4 sugar content when stored, whereby significantly devaluing the product. This effect is exacerbated by the practice of ‘ripening’ fresh honeys, especially by heating. We at Analytica did a thorough investigation on that phenomenon and came up with a kinetic model, which reliably forecasts the change in apparent C4 sugar in mānuka honeys.
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