Mānuka’s Unique Antimicrobial Activity

In most honeys, the antimicrobial activity comes from the hydrogen peroxide content that is produced by the enzyme glucose oxidase (Mandal & Mandal, 2011). But with honeys like mānuka, we know there is another activity source that does not come from hydrogen peroxide. This activity is called non-peroxide activity (NPA).
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An Understanding of Analytica's Nectar Testing

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C4 Sugar Testing: AOAC vs Screen

This article offers some details on the C4 sugar test and two screening methods.
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Tips For Cost Effective Tutin Testing

Honey samples can be tested for tutin using either composite or individual testing. While the lower initial cost of testing a sample as part of a 10-sample composite is attractive, it can be a false economy if the composite sample fails and all the samples in it need to be re-tested individually. If there is a moderate or unknown risk of tutin being in samples, consider testing samples in composite groups of five rather than 10. If there is a high risk of a sample containing tutin above MPI’s maximum residue limit, consider testing that sample individually from the start.
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Understanding DNA Testing in Manuka Honey

This article gives a brief introduction to DNA testing for those who wonder how it works.
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C4 Sugars: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

At Analytica Laboratories, we have processed a large number of honey samples for C4 sugars over the past three years and have found a set of recurring questions that are asked when a test result comes back near to or over the threshold level of 7% C4 sugars. In this article, I will endeavour to answer these commonly asked questions and shed some light on current research and methodology to identify genuine sugar adulteration in mānuka honey.
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Managing the Risk of Fermenting Honey

Many beekeepers and processors have had to deal with fermenting honey in the past. It is caused by naturally occurring yeasts growing in the honey, and high moisture content is a key risk factor which makes fermentation more likely. This article describes why honey ferments, and provides some ideas about how to manage the risk of it happening.
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Apparent C4 Sugars in Manuka Honeys

The C4 sugar test is a general qualification procedure for marketed honey. Current standards limit the amount of C4 sugars in honey to 7%. Most floral types of honey produce stable C4 sugar test results over the period of their shelf life. High-quality mānuka honeys were shown to inflate their C4 sugar content when stored, whereby significantly devaluing the product. This effect is exacerbated by the practice of ‘ripening’ fresh honeys, especially by heating. We at Analytica did a thorough investigation on that phenomenon and came up with a kinetic model, which reliably forecasts the change in apparent C4 sugar in mānuka honeys.
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AOAC C4 Sugar Tests: The Final Frontier?

Recent honey adulteration scandals in Australia around addition of C3 rice and beet syrups used to stretch honey yields remind us that the honey industry is only as good as its lowest common denominator. If we play the game well, we all win. If some of us go ‘rogue’, then the entire industry will suffer. It only takes a few rotten apples.
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DHA and MGO: The Most Common Testing in Manuka Honey

The single most common lab test requested for mānuka honey is the ‘3-in-1’ test, which measures concentrations of DHA, MGO, and HMF in honey. This article provides a brief history of testing the grade of mānuka honey. It describes how DHA and MGO test results change over time, and how they are used to help with grading and valuing of honey.
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When is honey really honey?

Honey is one of the most commonly adulterated foods in the world, and overseas countries or buyers often want confidence the honey being sold to them is authentic. The United Nations publishes an international standard for honey as part of its Codex Alimentarius (CODEX) range of standards, and this is widely referred to when checking for honey authenticity. Many of the tests that can be asked for in honey—including things like C4 Sugars, diastase, HMF, moisture, and conductivity—arise from this CODEX standard. This article gives an overview of what it contains, so you have a better idea of why you may be asked for such a range of honey test results.
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